25 de November de 1842 - Explicación de la sublevación por Washington Irving (863)

An insurrection has taken place in Barcelona. This is the next city in importance to Madrid. It is the capital of the province of Catalonia, the most active and mdustrious province in Spain. The Catalans are to Spain what the New England people are to the United States. Wherever money is to be made, there is a Catalan. They are pushing, scheming, enterprising, hardy, and litigious. Catalonia is one of the most restless and insubordinate of the Spanish provinces, and frequently the seat of political disturbances. It borders on France, and is infested by half-robber, half-rebel bands, the remnants of the factions of the civil wars which lurk about the French frontiers. There is a small but busy party of republicans, also, at Barcelona, who would gladly pull down the present form of government, and establish a republic. Catalonia also has a strong manufacturing interest, having many cotton manufactories. This has taken the alarm at the rumor of a proposed commercial treaty with England for the introduction of her cotton goods at a lower rate of duties, so that there is a mixture of various motives in the present convulsion; and the whole has been thrown in a ferment by the intrigues of foreign agents, who seek the confusion of Spain and the downfall of its constitutional government. The present insurrection seems to have broken out suddenly and accidentally, some trifling affray with custom house officers having been the spark which has set the combustible community in a flame. There has been fighting in the streets, as in the famous «three days of Paris,» and the troops have been obliged to evacuate the city, but hold it closely invested. The Regent set off from Madrid some days since for the scene of action, and troops are concentrating upon Catalonia from every direction; in the mean time, Madrid is full of rumors and reports that insurrections are breaking out in other provinces, but I believe, as yet, the insurrection is confined to Barcelona, and I think it probable it will be suppressed without much difficulty.

The departure of the Regent was a striking scene. All the uniform companies, or national guard of Madrid, consisting of several thousand men, well armed, equipped, and disciplined, paraded in the grand esplanade of the Prado in the neighborhood of the Regent’s palace of Buena Vista. They really made a splendid appearance, and the air resounded with military music, several of the regiments having complete bands. It was a bright, sunshiny day. About two o’clock, the Regent sallied forth from Buena Vista, at the head of his staff. He is a fine martial figure, and was arrayed in full uniform, with towering feathers, and mounted on a noble gray charger with a flowing mane, and a long silken tail that almost swept the ground. He rode along the heads of the columns, saluting them with his gauntleted hand, and receiving cheers wherever he went. He stopped to speak particularly with some of the troops of horsemen; then, returning to the centre of the esplanade, he drew his sword, made a signal as if about to speak, and in an instant a profound silence prevailed over that vast body of troops, and the thousands of surrounding spectators. I do not know that ever I was more struck by anything, than by this sudden quiet of an immense multitude. The Regent then moved slowly backward and forward with his horse, about a space of thirty yards, waving his sword, and addressing the troops in a voice so loud and clear, that every word could be distinctly heard to a great distance. The purport of his speech was to proclaim his determination to protect the present constitution, and the liberties of Spain, against despotism on the one hand and anarchy on the other; and that, as on a former occasion, when summoned away by distant msurrection, he confided to the loyalty of the national guards the protection of the peace of the capital, and the safeguard of their young and innocent Queen. His speech was responded to by enthusiastic acclamations from the troops and the multitude, and he sallied forth in martial style from the great gate of Alcala.

I must note, to complete the scene, that just as Espartero issued forth from Buena Vista, and rode slowly down the Prado between the columns of the troops, a solitary raven came sailing down the course of the public promenade, passed immediately above him, and over the whole line of troops, and so flitted heavily out of sight. This has been cited, even in the public papers, as a bad omen ; and some of the superstitious say Espartero will never return to Madrid. I should not be surprised, however, if the omen had been prepared by some of the petty politicians with which this capital abounds, and that the raven had been let loose just at this opportune moment.

However, with this portentous circumstance I will close my letter, especially as I have just received despatches from Government, which, with the stirring events of the day, will cut out plenty of occupation for me.

With love to all, your affectionate brother,


, The life and letters of Washington Irving (1883).

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  • Algodón (3)
  • Baldomero Espartero (22) Joaquín Baldomero Fernández-Espartero Álvarez de Toro (Granátula de Calatrava, 21 de febrero de 1793-Logroño, 8 de enero de 1879), conocido generalmente como Baldomero Espartero, fue un militar español que ostentó los títulos de príncipe de Vergara, duque de la Victoria, duque de Morella, conde de Luchana y vizconde de Banderas, todos ellos en recompensa por su labor en el campo de batalla, en especial en la Primera Guerra Carlista, donde su dirección del Ejército isabelino o cristino fue de vital importancia para la victoria final.
  • Barcelona (1604)
  • Bombardeo de Barcelona (1842) (7) El Bombardeo de Barcelona del 3 de diciembre de 1842 fue un hecho producido en España durante la regencia de Espartero del reinado de Isabel II. Fue ordenado personalmente por el general Baldomero Espartero para acabar con una insurrección que se había iniciado en Barcelona el mes anterior y que había obligado al ejército a refugiarse en el castillo de Montjuic y en la fortaleza de la Ciudadela.
  • Madrid (66)
  • Proteccionismo (20) El proteccionismo es el desarrollo de una política económica para proteger los productos del propio país, imponiendo limitaciones a la entrada de productos extranjeros, similares o iguales mediante la imposición de aranceles e impuestos a la importación, encareciendo así dicho producto de modo que no sea rentable.
  • Washington Irving (5) Washington Irving (Manhattan, Nueva York, 3 de abril de 1783 – Tarrytown, Wetschester, Estado de Nueva York, 28 de noviembre de 1859) fue un escritor estadounidense del Romanticismo.


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